open-loop-diagram-2017-620x438
More than $12bn (£9.7bn) has been spent on devices, known as open-loop scrubbers, which extract sulphur from the exhaust fumes of ships that run on heavy fuel oil. but dumping the sulphur into the sea [“washwater from exhaust gas cleaning systems”] instead of the air, enabling ships to still use heavy fuel oil. A total of 3,756 ships, both in operation and under order, have already had scrubbers installed according to DNV GL, the world’s largest ship classification company.
Only 23 of these vessels have had closed-loop scrubbers installed, a version of the device that does not discharge into the sea and stores the extracted sulphur in tanks before discharging it at a safe disposal facility in a port.
Under IMO regulations, ships are permitted to use open-loop scrubbers as what they call “equivalents”. These are defined as: “Any fitting, material, appliance or apparatus to be fitted in a ship or other procedures, alternative fuel oils, or compliance methods used as an alternative to that required.”

2629081

Yaz

YAZ (IMO 9735323), SIG (IMO 9735335), SUDAK (IMO 8943155), PASSAT (IMO 8523242), and OT-2077 (IMO 9025778) and Ivan Okorokov, Karen Stepanyan, and Ilya Loginov sanctioned.

cosco-shipping-vlcc

The surprise move, affecting one of the world’s largest energy shippers, operating more than 50 supertankers, comes as U.S. President Donald Trump seeks to exert maximum pressure on Iran to drop nuclear programs. In what the State Department called “one of the largest sanctions actions the U.S. has taken” since curbs were re-imposed on Iran in November last year, two units of COSCO were named alongside other companies in claims of involvement in sanctions-busting shipments of Iranian oil.
COSCO Shipping Tanker (Dalian) Co. and COSCO Shipping Tanker (Dalian) Seaman & Ship Management Co. were determined by the Secretary of State on September 25, 2019, to meet thecriteria for the imposition of sanctions under Executive Order (E.O.) 13846.

https://www.treasury.gov/resource-center/sanctions/Programs/Documents/iran_r_action_faq_0925019.pdf

The US Treasury Department also announced September 26 2019 that China Concord Petroleum Co., Kunlun Holding Co., Kunlun Shipping Co. and Pegasus 88 and five executives had been added to the Office of Foreign Assets Control’s specially designated nationals and blocked persons list.

[September 21 2019 LI Shangfu (Chinese Simplified: 李尚福) added to SDN, purchased Russian ]

The following individual has been added to OFAC’s SDN List:

LI, Shangfu (Chinese Simplified: 李尚福); DOB 01 Feb 1958 to 28 Feb 1958; POB Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China; citizen China; Gender Male; CAATSA Section 235 Information: FOREIGN EXCHANGE. Sec 235(a)(7); alt. CAATSA Section 235 Information: BANKING TRANSACTIONS. Sec 235(a)(8); alt. CAATSA Section 235 Information: EXCLUSION OF CORPORATE OFFICERS. Sec 235(a)(11); alt. CAATSA Section 235 Information: BLOCKING PROPERTY AND INTERESTS IN PROPERTY. Sec 235(a)(9); Director of Equipment Development Department (individual) [CAATSA – RUSSIA] (Linked To: EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT).

 

[   Russia threatens attack ‘by other means’ against U.S. sanctions   ]

9934a6a413764d75a913fe8bf764c732

Central Bank of Russia

A ban on Russian state-owned banks’ operations or on their use of one or another currency follows, it would be possible to clearly call it a declaration of economic war,” said Dmitry Medvedev, Russian prime minister. Legislation introduced last week in draft form by Republican and Democratic senators proposes curbs on the operations of several state-owned Russian banks in the United States and restrictions on their use of the dollar.”And it would be necessary, it would be needed to react to this war economically, politically, or, if needed, by other means. And our American friends need to understand this,” he said’

Six senators — three Republicans and three Democrats — led by Republican Lindsey Graham penned the DASKAA legislation. “The sheer momentum building behind these various bills means that it is becoming very likely something gets passed,” a sovereign strategist said.

[ August 16 New U.S. sanctions against banks ]

The following administrative changes have been made to OFAC’s SDN List:

BANK OF EAST LAND (a.k.a. DONGBANG BANK; a.k.a. TONGBANG BANK; a.k.a. TONGBANG U’NHAENG), PO Box 32, BEL Building, Jonseung-Dong, Moranbong District, Pyongyang, Korea, North; SWIFT/BIC BOEL KP PY [DPRK]. -to- BANK OF EAST LAND (a.k.a. DONGBANG BANK; a.k.a. TONGBANG BANK; a.k.a. TONGBANG U’NHAENG), PO Box 32, BEL Building, Jonseung-Dong, Moranbong District, Pyongyang, Korea, North; SWIFT/BIC BOELKPPY [DPRK].

BANK ROSSIYA (a.k.a. AB ROSSIYA, OAO; f.k.a. AKTSIONERNY BANK RUSSIAN FEDERATION; a.k.a. OTKRYTOE AKTSIONERNOE OBSHCHESTVO AKTSIONERNY BANK ROSSIYA), 2 Liter A Pl. Rastrelli, Saint Petersburg 191124, Russia; SWIFT/BIC ROSY RU 2P; Website http://www.abr.ru; Email Address bank@abr.ru; Registration ID 1027800000084 (Russia); Tax ID No. 7831000122 (Russia); Government Gazette Number 09804148 (Russia) [UKRAINE-EO13661]. -to- BANK ROSSIYA (a.k.a. AB ROSSIYA, OAO; f.k.a. AKTSIONERNY BANK RUSSIAN FEDERATION; a.k.a. OTKRYTOE AKTSIONERNOE OBSHCHESTVO AKTSIONERNY BANK ROSSIYA), 2 Liter A Pl. Rastrelli, Saint Petersburg 191124, Russia; SWIFT/BIC ROSYRU2P; Website http://www.abr.ru; Email Address bank@abr.ru; Registration ID 1027800000084 (Russia); Tax ID No. 7831000122 (Russia); Government Gazette Number 09804148 (Russia) [UKRAINE-EO13661].

CHEIL CREDIT BANK (a.k.a. FIRST CREDIT BANK; f.k.a. “KYONGYONG CREDIT BANK”), 3-18 Pyongyang Information Center, Potonggang District, Pyongyang, Korea, North; Beijing, China; Shenyang, China; Shanghai, China; SWIFT/BIC KYCBKPPYXXX [DPRK4]. -to- CHEIL CREDIT BANK (a.k.a. FIRST CREDIT BANK; f.k.a. “KYONGYONG CREDIT BANK”), 3-18 Pyongyang Information Center, Potonggang District, Pyongyang, Korea, North; Beijing, China; Shenyang, China; Shanghai, China; SWIFT/BIC KYCBKPPY [DPRK4].

COMMERCIAL BANK OF SYRIA, P.O. Box 933, Yousef Azmeh Square, Damascus, Syria; Aleppo Branch, P.O. Box 2, Kastel Hajjarin St., Aleppo, Syria; Damascus Branch, P.O. Box 2231, Moawiya St., Damascus, Syria; SWIFT/BIC CMSY SY DA; all offices worldwide [NPWMD]. -to- COMMERCIAL BANK OF SYRIA, P.O. Box 933, Yousef Azmeh Square, Damascus, Syria; Aleppo Branch, P.O. Box 2, Kastel Hajjarin St., Aleppo, Syria; Damascus Branch, P.O. Box 2231, Moawiya St., Damascus, Syria; SWIFT/BIC CMSYSYDA; all offices worldwide [NPWMD].

DAEDONG CREDIT BANK (a.k.a. DAE-DONG CREDIT BANK; a.k.a. DCB; a.k.a. TAEDONG CREDIT BANK), Suite 401, Potonggang Hotel, Ansan-Dong, Pyongchon District, Pyongyang, Korea, North; Ansan-dong, Botongang Hotel, Pongchon, Pyongyang, Korea, North; SWIFT/BIC DCBK KPPY [NPWMD]. -to- DAEDONG CREDIT BANK (a.k.a. DAE-DONG CREDIT BANK; a.k.a. DCB; a.k.a. TAEDONG CREDIT BANK), Suite 401, Potonggang Hotel, Ansan-Dong, Pyongchon District, Pyongyang, Korea, North; Ansan-dong, Botongang Hotel, Pongchon, Pyongyang, Korea, North; SWIFT/BIC DCBKKPPY [NPWMD].

FOREIGN TRADE BANK OF THE DEMOCRATIC PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF KOREA (a.k.a. KOREA TRADE BANK; a.k.a. MOOYOKBANK; a.k.a. NORTH KOREA’S FOREIGN TRADE BANK), FTB Building, Jungsong-dong, Central District, Pyongyang, Korea, North; SWIFT/BIC FTBD KP PY [NPWMD] [DPRK3]. -to- FOREIGN TRADE BANK OF THE DEMOCRATIC PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF KOREA (a.k.a. KOREA TRADE BANK; a.k.a. MOOYOKBANK; a.k.a. NORTH KOREA’S FOREIGN TRADE BANK), FTB Building, Jungsong-dong, Central District, Pyongyang, Korea, North; SWIFT/BIC FTBDKPPY [NPWMD] [DPRK3].

HANA BANKING CORPORATION LTD (a.k.a. BRILLIANCE BANKING CORPORATION, LTD.; a.k.a. GORGEOUS BANK OF NORTH KOREA; a.k.a. HUALI BANK (Chinese Simplified: 朝鲜华丽银行); a.k.a. HWARYO BANK (Korean: 화려은행)), Haebangsan Hotel, Jungsong-Dong, Sungri Street, Central District, Pyongyang, Korea, North; Dandong, China; SWIFT/BIC BRBKKPP1XXX [DPRK3]. -to- HANA BANKING CORPORATION LTD (a.k.a. BRILLIANCE BANKING CORPORATION, LTD.; a.k.a. GORGEOUS BANK OF NORTH KOREA; a.k.a. HUALI BANK (Chinese Simplified: 朝鲜华丽银行); a.k.a. HWARYO BANK (Korean: 화려은행)), Haebangsan Hotel, Jungsong-Dong, Sungri Street, Central District, Pyongyang, Korea, North; Dandong, China; SWIFT/BIC BRBKKPP1 [DPRK3].

IS BANK, AO (a.k.a. AKTSIONERNOE OBSHCHESTVO KOMMERCHESKI BANK INDUSTRIALNY SBEREGATELNY BANK; f.k.a. CLOSED JOINT STOCK COMPANY COMMERCIAL BANK ‘INDUSTRIAL SAVINGS BANK’; a.k.a. JOINT-STOCK COMPANY COMMERCIAL BANK ‘INDUSTRIAL SAVINGS BANK’; a.k.a. JSC CB ‘IS BANK’), Eldoradovsky per 7, Moscow 125167, Russia; 29/UL, prospect Kirova, Simferopol, Crimea 295011, Ukraine; Building 160, Office 104, Kievskaya Street, Simferopol, Crimea 295493, Ukraine; Building 25, Lenin Street, Kerch, Crimea 298300, Ukraine; SWIFT/BIC RISB RU MM; BIK (RU) 044525349; Registration ID 1027739339715 (Russia); Tax ID No. 7744001673 (Russia); Government Gazette Number 40199908 (Russia) [UKRAINE-EO13685]. -to- IS BANK, AO (a.k.a. AKTSIONERNOE OBSHCHESTVO KOMMERCHESKI BANK INDUSTRIALNY SBEREGATELNY BANK; f.k.a. CLOSED JOINT STOCK COMPANY COMMERCIAL BANK ‘INDUSTRIAL SAVINGS BANK’; a.k.a. JOINT-STOCK COMPANY COMMERCIAL BANK ‘INDUSTRIAL SAVINGS BANK’; a.k.a. JSC CB ‘IS BANK’), Eldoradovsky per 7, Moscow 125167, Russia; 29/UL, prospect Kirova, Simferopol, Crimea 295011, Ukraine; Building 160, Office 104, Kievskaya Street, Simferopol, Crimea 295493, Ukraine; Building 25, Lenin Street, Kerch, Crimea 298300, Ukraine; SWIFT/BIC RISBRUMM; BIK (RU) 044525349; Registration ID 1027739339715 (Russia); Tax ID No. 7744001673 (Russia); Government Gazette Number 40199908 (Russia) [UKRAINE-EO13685].

JOINT STOCK COMMERCIAL BANK RUBLEV (a.k.a. AKTSIONERNOE OBSHCHESTVO KOMMERCHESKI BANK RUBLEV; a.k.a. BANK RUBLEV; a.k.a. JSC CB ‘RUBLEV’; a.k.a. RUBLEV BANK), Elokhovsky passage, Building 3, p. 2, Metro – Baumanskaya, Moscow 105066, Russia; 12 Sevastopol Street, Simferopol, Crimea, Ukraine; 6 Gogol Street, Sevastopol, Crimea, Ukraine; SWIFT/BIC COUE RU MM; BIK (RU) 044525253; Registration ID 1027700159233 (Russia); Tax ID No. 7744001151 (Russia); Government Gazette Number 40100094 (Russia) [UKRAINE-EO13685]. -to- JOINT STOCK COMMERCIAL BANK RUBLEV (a.k.a. AKTSIONERNOE OBSHCHESTVO KOMMERCHESKI BANK RUBLEV; a.k.a. BANK RUBLEV; a.k.a. JSC CB ‘RUBLEV’; a.k.a. RUBLEV BANK), Elokhovsky passage, Building 3, p. 2, Metro – Baumanskaya, Moscow 105066, Russia; 12 Sevastopol Street, Simferopol, Crimea, Ukraine; 6 Gogol Street, Sevastopol, Crimea, Ukraine; SWIFT/BIC COUERUMM; BIK (RU) 044525253; Registration ID 1027700159233 (Russia); Tax ID No. 7744001151 (Russia); Government Gazette Number 40100094 (Russia) [UKRAINE-EO13685].

JOINT-STOCK COMPANY COMMERCIAL BANK NORTH CREDIT (a.k.a. JSC CB NORTH CREDIT; a.k.a. NORTH CREDIT BANK), Building 27, Herzen Street, Vologda, Vologda Oblast 160000, Russia; Building 29a, Zhelyabova Street, Simferopol, Crimea 295011, Ukraine; ul. Gertsena 27, Vologda, Vologodskaya Oblast 160000, Russia; SWIFT/BIC NOCR RU 21; BIK (RU) 041909769; Registration ID 1022900001772 (Russia); Tax ID No. 2901009852 (Russia) [UKRAINE-EO13685]. -to- JOINT-STOCK COMPANY COMMERCIAL BANK NORTH CREDIT (a.k.a. JSC CB NORTH CREDIT; a.k.a. NORTH CREDIT BANK), Building 27, Herzen Street, Vologda, Vologda Oblast 160000, Russia; Building 29a, Zhelyabova Street, Simferopol, Crimea 295011, Ukraine; ul. Gertsena 27, Vologda, Vologodskaya Oblast 160000, Russia; SWIFT/BIC NOCRRU21; BIK (RU) 041909769; Registration ID 1022900001772 (Russia); Tax ID No. 2901009852 (Russia) [UKRAINE-EO13685].

KOREA DAESONG BANK (a.k.a. CHOSON TAESONG UNHAENG; a.k.a. TAESONG BANK), Segori-dong, Gyongheung St., Potonggang District, Pyongyang, Korea, North; SWIFT/BIC KDBK KP PY; PHONE 850 2 381 8221; PHONE 850 2 18111 ext. 8221; FAX 850 2 381 4576; TELEX 360230 and 37041 KDP KP; TGMS daesongbank; EMAIL kdb@co.chesin.com [DPRK]. -to- KOREA DAESONG BANK (a.k.a. CHOSON TAESONG UNHAENG; a.k.a. TAESONG BANK), Segori-dong, Gyongheung St., Potonggang District, Pyongyang, Korea, North; SWIFT/BIC KDBKKPPY; PHONE 850 2 381 8221; PHONE 850 2 18111 ext. 8221; FAX 850 2 381 4576; TELEX 360230 and 37041 KDP KP; TGMS daesongbank; EMAIL kdb@co.chesin.com [DPRK].

REAL ESTATE BANK (a.k.a. REAL-ESTATE BANK), P.O. Box 2337, Insurance Bldg., Youssef Alazma Square, Damascus, Syria; Syrian General Insurance Company Building, Youssef Al Azmeh Square, P.O. Box 2337, Damascus, Syria; SWIFT/BIC REBS SY DA [SYRIA]. -to- REAL ESTATE BANK (a.k.a. REAL-ESTATE BANK), P.O. Box 2337, Insurance Bldg., Youssef Alazma Square, Damascus, Syria; Syrian General Insurance Company Building, Youssef Al Azmeh Square, P.O. Box 2337, Damascus, Syria; SWIFT/BIC REBSSYDA [SYRIA].

RUSSIAN NATIONAL COMMERCIAL BANK (a.k.a. RNKB OAO; a.k.a. ROSSISKI NATSIONALNY KOMMERCHESKI BANK OTKRYTOE AKTSIONERNOE OBSHCHESTVO; a.k.a. “RNCB”), d. 9 korp. 5 ul.Krasnoproletarskaya, Moscow 127030, Russia; SWIFT/BIC RNCO RU MM; Website http://www.rncb.ru; Email Address rncb@rncb.ru; BIK (RU) 044525607; Registration ID 1027700381290 (Russia); Tax ID No. 7701105460 (Russia); Government Gazette Number 09610705 (Russia) [UKRAINE-EO13685]. -to- RUSSIAN NATIONAL COMMERCIAL BANK (a.k.a. RNKB OAO; a.k.a. ROSSISKI NATSIONALNY KOMMERCHESKI BANK OTKRYTOE AKTSIONERNOE OBSHCHESTVO; a.k.a. “RNCB”), d. 9 korp. 5 ul.Krasnoproletarskaya, Moscow 127030, Russia; SWIFT/BIC RNCORUMM; Website http://www.rncb.ru; Email Address rncb@rncb.ru; BIK (RU) 044525607; Registration ID 1027700381290 (Russia); Tax ID No. 7701105460 (Russia); Government Gazette Number 09610705 (Russia) [UKRAINE-EO13685].

SYRIA INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC BANK (a.k.a. SIIB; a.k.a. SYRIAN INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC BANK), Syria International Islamic Building , Main Highway Road, Al Mazzeh Area, P.O. Box 35494, Damascus , Syria; PO Box 35494, Mezza’h Vellat Sharqia’h, beside the Saudi Arabia Consulate , Damascus , Syria; SWIFT/BIC SIIB SY DA; all offices worldwide [NPWMD]. -to- SYRIA INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC BANK (a.k.a. SIIB; a.k.a. SYRIAN INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC BANK), Syria International Islamic Building , Main Highway Road, Al Mazzeh Area, P.O. Box 35494, Damascus , Syria; PO Box 35494, Mezza’h Vellat Sharqia’h, beside the Saudi Arabia Consulate , Damascus , Syria; SWIFT/BIC SIIBSYDA; all offices worldwide [NPWMD].

SYRIAN LEBANESE COMMERCIAL BANK, Hamra, Makdessi Street, SLCB Building, P.O. Box 113-5127/11-8701, Beirut, Lebanon; Hamra Branch, Hamra St., Darwish and Fakhro Building, P.O. Box 113-5127/11-8701, Beirut, Lebanon; Mar Elias Branch, Mar Elias Street, Fakhani Building, P.O. Box 145 796, Beirut, Lebanon; SWIFT/BIC SYLC LB BE [NPWMD]. -to- SYRIAN LEBANESE COMMERCIAL BANK, Hamra, Makdessi Street, SLCB Building, P.O. Box 113-5127/11-8701, Beirut, Lebanon; Hamra Branch, Hamra St., Darwish and Fakhro Building, P.O. Box 113-5127/11-8701, Beirut, Lebanon; Mar Elias Branch, Mar Elias Street, Fakhani Building, P.O. Box 145 796, Beirut, Lebanon; SWIFT/BIC SYLCLBBE [NPWMD].

VVB, PAO (f.k.a. COMMERCIAL JOINT-STOCK INCORPORATION BANK YAROSLAVICH; f.k.a. KOMMERCHESKI BANK YAROSLAVICH, PAO; a.k.a. PJSC BANK VVB; a.k.a. PUBLIC JOINT-STOCK COMPANY BANK VVB; a.k.a. PUBLICHNOE AKTSIONERNOE OBSHCHESTVO BANK VVB; a.k.a. PUBLICHNOYE JOINT-STOCK COMPANY BANK VVB), 3A ul., 4-ya Bastionnaya, Sevastopol, Crimea 299011, Ukraine; Voronina, 10, Sevastopol, Crimea 299011, Ukraine; 39A Ul. Suvorova, Sevastopol, Crimea, Ukraine; 5 Per. Pionerskiy, Simferopol, Crimea, Ukraine; SWIFT/BIC YARO RU 21; BIK (RU) 046711106; alt. BIK (RU) 043510133 [UKRAINE-EO13685]. -to- VVB, PAO (f.k.a. COMMERCIAL JOINT-STOCK INCORPORATION BANK YAROSLAVICH; f.k.a. KOMMERCHESKI BANK YAROSLAVICH, PAO; a.k.a. PJSC BANK VVB; a.k.a. PUBLIC JOINT-STOCK COMPANY BANK VVB; a.k.a. PUBLICHNOE AKTSIONERNOE OBSHCHESTVO BANK VVB; a.k.a. PUBLICHNOYE JOINT-STOCK COMPANY BANK VVB), 3A ul., 4-ya Bastionnaya, Sevastopol, Crimea 299011, Ukraine; Voronina, 10, Sevastopol, Crimea 299011, Ukraine; 39A Ul. Suvorova, Sevastopol, Crimea, Ukraine; 5 Per. Pionerskiy, Simferopol, Crimea, Ukraine; SWIFT/BIC YARORU21; BIK (RU) 046711106; alt. BIK (RU) 043510133 [UKRAINE-EO13685].

https://home.treasury.gov/news/press-releases/sm458

Screenshot 2019-09-24 at 10.12.08 AM - Edited
PRU’s 2006 reorganization of its mutual fund business  created a conflict of interest because the company benefited while the funds lost income from securities lending. Prudential subsidiaries PGIM Investments and AST Investment Services have paid out a combined $187 million after the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) charged the firms with misleading fund shareholders.  PRU, which does not admit or deny the claims, will pay a $32.6M settlement and reimburse more than $155M to the funds.

https://www.sec.gov/news/press-release/2019-176

https://www.sec.gov/litigation/admin/2019/ia-5346.pdf

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Going forward, Deutsche Bank is expected to report significant restructuring charges in the next few quarters due to its rundown of assets in the CRU unit and may only return to report a meaningful profit in 2021.

[June 28 2018 Deutsche Bank fails 2d part of Stress Test by feds ]

Deutsche Bank AG’s (DBKGn.DE) U.S. subsidiary failed on Thursday, June 28, the second part of the U.S. Federal Reserve’s annual stress tests. “Concerns include material weaknesses in the firm’s data capabilities and controls supporting its capital planning process, as well as weaknesses in its approaches and assumptions used to forecast revenues and losses under stress,” While failing the U.S. stress test would not likely affect the banks’ ability to pay dividends to shareholders, which are typically paid out at the group level, it will require Deutsche Bank to make changes to its U.S. operations. It also means the bank would not be able to make any distributions to its German parent without the Fed’s approval.

83a40cbda527dc98b024eb9c00cc493ef20e640f 12/09/2019 Former French prime minister Francois Fillon will go on trial in February on accusations of creating a fictitious but well-paid job for his wife, which destroyed his bid to claim the presidency in 2017.

 

 

nicolas-sarkozy

19 June 2019 Former French president Nicolas Sarkozy has lost his final bid to avoid a trial on charges of corruption and influence peddling, and will likely have to appear in court in the coming months. Court of Cassation, which rules on questions of law, ruled that a trial was justified for Sarkozy

Fed: Unwinding QE unwind

11 September, 2019

80420417_quantitative_easing_v4_624in

On 31 July, the Federal Reserve announced that it would put an end to its policy of selling chunks of its holdings of securities, so as to unwind its bloated balance sheet. Even though the task of unwinding unconventional monetary policies is far from complete, going by its 31 July announcement, the Fed has decided to hold back and reverse its policy direction.

[NOV 24 2017]As of October, the Fed will let billions of dollars of securities mature each month without reinvesting them. It will gradually increase the amount of maturing bonds each quarter over the next year. HSBC Chief Economist Kevin Logan said this process is new territory for the Fed.

“This is a big experiment,” Logan said. “It’s something that’s never been done before.”

Starting 2016, gradual rate asset sales by the Fed were presented as necessary, because “unconventional monetary policies” adopted to combat the recession precipitated by the global financial crisis (GFC) had been in place for too long, undo the policy of quantitative easing (QE).