83a40cbda527dc98b024eb9c00cc493ef20e640f 12/09/2019 Former French prime minister Francois Fillon will go on trial in February on accusations of creating a fictitious but well-paid job for his wife, which destroyed his bid to claim the presidency in 2017.

 

 

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19 June 2019 Former French president Nicolas Sarkozy has lost his final bid to avoid a trial on charges of corruption and influence peddling, and will likely have to appear in court in the coming months. Court of Cassation, which rules on questions of law, ruled that a trial was justified for Sarkozy

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Tiphaine Auzière came back on the sexist attacks of the Brazilian president Jair Bolsonaro and one of its ministers against Brigitte Macron.”I was very angry, when you insult my mother publicly, it makes you very angry, I was amazed that politicians insulting women in 2019,” said the creator of the #balancetonmiso movement. launched – after going to pick up her children at school – in response to criticism of the physical of President Emmanuel Macron’s wife. “To defend my mother was to defend all the women victims of violence (…) It is for me a call to indignation.I think that there are many people who, like me, are against the trivialization of misogynistic words, of ordinary sexism, it is a moral violence, the first step which leads to physical violence. ”

[July 16 2019 French Environment Minister François de Rugy resigns
france-derugy-severineservat

French Environment Minister François de Rugy announced his resignation on July 16 2019. de Rugy and his wife were “living like royals on public funds” and inviting friends to “sumptuous receptions” in the Hôtel de Lassay, the official residence of the head of the National Assembly. De Rugy, 44, is a long-time politician and environmentalist. First elected to parliament in 2007 with the European Greens, he quit the party in 2015, criticising its “leftist drift” under the presidency of François Hollande. He founded his own green party that same year but joined Macron’s La République En Marche party in 2016.

[September 13 2017 Fillon a partner at Tikehau Capital ]

co-habitation

François Fillon, the centre-right French presidential candidate whose scandal-ridden campaign saw him crash out of the country’s presidential elections, is joining a fund management firm.

Mr Fillon, who is under judicial investigation in an embezzlement case, is to become a partner at Tikehau Capital in September, highlighting the porous borders between France’s political and business elite.

Based in Paris and with offices across Europe and Asia, Tikehau has more than €10bn in assets under management and focuses on private corporate debt and private equity investing.

[ July 14 Brigitte ‘in such good shape’ ]

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July 14 2017

In 2013. Valarie served as France's first lady

Michelle Obama with Hollande’s companion

French President Emmanuel Macron greets US First Lady Melania Trump while his wife Brigitte Macron welcomes US President Donald Trump at Les Invalides museum in Paris

DONALD Trump exclaimed Emmaneul Macron’s wife Brigitte Trogneux was “in such good shape”

[July 7 Macron confers, Fillon is silent]

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During a party, Francois Fillon did not fail to admit that one day he would reveal confidences about Penelope Gate and what surrounds him: ” My silence will not be eternal.” When the time comes, Will write what I have on my heart.

[June 23 Macron’s 350 seats in National assembly ]

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Faced by Macron’s 350 seats, conservative Républicains and their centrist allies had their worse ever score with 130 seats (against 229 in the last Parliament).

[May 9 Russian hacking shows Macron offshore accounts? ]

 French prosecutors are to open a probe into the campaign of president-elect Emmanuel Macron.   French cyber police will lead the investigation after documents purporting to show off-shore bank accounts were released online.  Mr Macron has vigriously denied all allegations relating to bank accounts.   Said to be a hoax

[May 8 Co-Habitation – Penelope and Brigitte ]

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Who has more fun politics? Brigitte accused of hair extensions, veneers and cosmetic surgury

tiphaine-auziere

Tiphaine

Brigitte Marie-Claude Trogneux, was married to a banker named André-Louis Auzière and has three children and seven grandchildren, with him. Her 30-year-old daughter, Tiphaine Auziere, is a lawyer and also works on her stepfather, Emmanuel Macaron’s campaign. At her first campaign event, Tiphanie praised Emmanuel, calling him an “intelligent man” with an “exceptional personality.” Brigitte’s eldest child, Sebastien was born in 1975, which makes him two years older than his stepfather. Brigitte’s youngest daughter, Laurence, is the same age as Emmanuel, and were actually in the same class.

co habitation

France’s center-right party, seeking to rebound after the defeat of its presidential candidate, said on April 26 it could share power with Emmanuel Macron if he is elected, as pollsters predict, on May 7.

Macron, a 39-year-old centrist, is tipped to comfortably win a runoff vote against far-right leader Marine Le Pen, but the political movement he created a year ago faces a huge challenge in the follow-up legislative election in June.

With Macron and his “En Marche!” movement at risk of being in a minority in parliament, the center-right party, The Republicans, hopes to secure enough National Assembly seats to demand a government role despite the defeat of its presidential contender Francois Fillon, eliminated in a first-round vote on April 23. president cannot do much without parliamentary support in France, since the office is less independently powerful than in the United States.
“Cohabitation,” is a particular feature of French government, under which it is possible that the president (who is elected directly) belongs to one party, and the prime minister belongs to the other. Although this confuses people from other countries, French citizens quite like it, as it creates a kind of domestic balance of power.

[April 25 Enter Brigitte Macron, the cougar?]

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17 and 40

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Who has more fun politics?

French presidential candidate Emmanuel Macron is married to Brigitte Macron. As Brigitte Marie-Claude Trogneux, the now 64-year-old is the daughter of a family of chocolatiers, an organizer who is one of the masterminds behind the movement’s rise. Trogneux eventually separated from her husband with whom she has three children. In 2007, the two Macrons were married . Critics of the presidential front-runner frequently refer to his wife using the term “cougar” — a not exactly flattering word that describes older women seeking relationships with younger men.

[April 23 No French President Fillon ]

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Fillon finished  close behind the front-runners with 19.9 percent suppot and Fillon – a former prime minister – received some last-minute public endorsements from former President Nicolas Sarkozy and former Prime Minister Alain Juppe.
Fillon beat both of them in the primary vote to stand for the Republicans party, but his campaign has been hit by a series of allegations and charges of financial irregularities during his time as a government official and minister.

[February 1 Fun in horse race]

penelope-fillon

Who has more fun politics?

What started last week as a page three article in Le Canard Enchaine (it was not even on the front) now has a serious chance of bringing down the man seen as favourite to be the next French head of state. Mr Fillon’s wife Penelope was paid hundreds of thousands of euros in taxpayers’ money for a fictitious job as parliamentary assistant to her husband and his replacement.. So a new method for choosing a replacement candidate would have to be devised. Many eyes are turning to Alain Juppe, the runner-up in November’s primary.
Last week Mr Juppe said there was no way he would let himself be considered again as a candidate – but that was then.
“What is striking to me is how little help there is being directed at Fillon from his fellows in the party,” says Cecile Cornudet. “It doesn’t look good for him.”
Former President Nicolas Sarkozy is no doubt watching closely, and other senior Republican figures are also being mentioned, such as Francois Baroin, Laurent Wauquiez and Xavier Bertrand. Marine Le Pen, French far-right National Front (FN) party president, too is embroiled in corruption allegations, after the European parliament demanded she start repaying around €300,000 it says were wrongly paid to legislative aides and her bodyguard

[December 8 2016 DSK “a dimension outside the system” in second place as left candidate ]

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December 7 2016

The former IMF chief is back on the podium from left presidential candidates. According to a survey, 37% of French see him as a good candidate.
Dominique Strauss-Kahn is back on the list of best candidates left for 2017, second only Manuel Valls in a ViaVoice poll for Liberation published Thursday December 8. To the question whether each of the nine tested individuals would make a good or a good candidate “for the left in the 2017 presidential election,” 47% of respondents put the head Manuel Valls. DSK reached 37%, ahead of Ségolène Royal (32%), Martine Aubry (28%), Arnaud Montebourg (24%). François Hollande gets only 23%.
Among supporters of the left, Dominique Strauss-Kahn (45%) but ranks only 5th place, preceded by Manuel Valls (67%), Martine Aubry (62%), Ségolène Royal and François Hollande (56% each) . “Data for Dominique Strauss-Kahn are particularly unexpected,” notes political analyst Francois Miquet-Marty on behalf of ViaVoice. According to him, for DSK assets “a dimension outside the system, including during the trial proceedings; in contrast, the image of competence reinforced this time in the heart of the system “, and that” a determination, a perceived strength. ”
Moreover, Nicolas Sarkozy is designated by 28% of the sample as the winner of the presidential election if the were held today (23% for Marine Le Pen, only 9% for Hollande). 63% of respondents disapprove of the present policy (19% approve, 18% did not respond). 34% think that the right would be better that the Socialists if it was in power, and 28% believe that the National Front as it would do better.
Survey conducted online June 23 to 26 among a sample of 1,002 people representative of the French population aged 18 and over. Quota method.

[February 9 Alain Juppé ahead of Nicolas Sarkozy in polls ]

Alain Juppé is married to Isabelle Juppe (Bodin-born Legrand) is a former journalist who has long worked for the Lagardere media group. A Digital Specialist ,”The digital Woman in 2007″ .

Former French Prime Minister Alain Juppé will win The Republicans party nomination to run for president in 2017, beating Nicolas Sarkozy, according to a poll from Ipsos published in daily newspaper Le Monde February 8.
Forty-four percent of the respondents who are “certain” to vote in the party’s primary elections said they would choose Juppe, compared with 32 percent for Sarkozy, Ipsos, which conducted the survey with the Cevipof political institute, said. While former President Sarkozy may win more votes among party followers, The Republicans’ primaries will be open to all voters, which could allow Juppe to take the lead, the survey shows. France’s two-round presidential elections will be held in May 2017 and The Republicans’ primaries will be held in November. Sarkozy has vowed to slash taxes and pare back public spending if he is elected French president in 2017, as the former leader begins his campaign for nomination.

President Francois Hollande would lose the first round of the 2017 presidential election if either Sarkozy or Juppe win The Republicans’ primaries, according to a poll.

DSK – Comité de soutien

[December 1 2014 Hollande in Dakar row; Paparazzi did not snap Gayet, 5 staff fired ]

On November 29 at the meeting in the Senegalese capital Dakar, Hollande said “all human beings should be allowed to choose their leaders”.
Rwandan Foreign Minister Louise Mushikiwabo said the French leader should not “decide what will happen in African countries concerning their political future”.
She added: “It’s a ‘Made in France’ democracy, and in Rwanda we find that shocking.”

Five members of Francois Hollande’s personal staff have lost their jobs after photos were taken of the president and his ‘secret’ lover at the Elysee Palace.
Taken last month, they showed the 60-year-old Socialist with Julie Gayet, the 42-year-old TV actress.There was no possibility of paparazzi having got into the highly secure presidential home in Paris, prompting the speculation that the pictures were taken by staff.
‘Five were immediately placed in the frame, and they are the ones who have been moved on to other duties,’ said a governmental source in Paris.
He said investigators did not know the exact person who had taken the snaps, so all five were ‘being let go’.

[November 29 Sarkozy elected party leader of UMP; Gayet is pictured at Elysee

As UMP holds an election, Julie Gayet is pictured at  Elysee

Say three times:Gayet à l’Elysée

Former French President Nicolas Sarkozy has been elected party leader of UMP, gaining 64.5% of the vote. More than 150,000 party members – over 50% – voted in the election [ November 28] Sarkozy faces two internal challengers for the country’s main opposition party, the conservative UMP’s primary in 2016 to choose the party’s 2017 presidential candidate: former prime ministers Alain Juppe and Francois Fillon. Neither is running in the elections November 28,29.

[November 3 Sarkozy: Alain Juppé has become the main obstacle to the political return of Nicolas Sarkozy]

Alain Juppé is married to Isabelle Juppe (Bodin-born Legrand) is a former journalist who has long worked for the Lagardere media group. A Digital Specialist ,”The digital Woman in 2007″ .

A survey highlights the new popularity of Alain Juppe, who has become the main obstacle to the political return of Nicolas Sarkozy as the candidate in the 2016 primary of the UMP for the presidential election in 2017. The Mayor of Bordeaux in fact exceeds the former president of the Republic in popularity with supporters of the UMP, with 76% of good opinions, compared to 71% for Nicolas Sarkozy. The other potential contenders for the investiture of 2017 are far behind. A survey by polling group LH2 in October showed Alain Juppé, for the first time beating Sarkozy in the run-off due next year for the presidential ticket of their UMP party.

Alain Juppé, a prime minister under center-right French President Jacques Chirac and a senior minister during the presidency of Nicolas Sarkozy, said on August 20 that he would seek to become president in 2017. In 2004, he was forced to put his political career on hold, when a court sentenced him to one year of ineligibility for public office, in addition to a 14-month suspended prison term for having illegally helped militants within his party collect monthly payments from the Paris city hall. At the time, Mr. Juppé acknowledged errors and negligence but said he had never sought to violate the law.

In a brief statement, Jacques Chirac , the former president of the Republic is supporting former Prime Minister candidate in the primary of the UMP for the presidential election in 2017.

“I always knew that Alain Juppe would have an appointment with you his fate and that of France.” Few things could I do more fun, for me- even for him, especially for our country (…) If I had the energy, I would have already booked my place, even a small, at its HQ.”

[July 23 UMP supports Sarkozy despite indictment ]
Atlantico survey published July 17 shows that UMP supporters support Nicolas Sarkozy. Indeed, the former head of state grew by 6 points compared to June 2014, despite his indictment and the Bygmalion case.

[July 17]

Her rhetorical style is a cross between gospel and opera and, with a voice like Billie Holiday

Minister of Justice Christiane Taubira: Her rhetorical style is a cross between gospel and opera and, with a voice like Billie Holiday

Questioned on the first indictment of Nicolas Sarkozy and attacks of the former Head of State against the judiciary, Christiane Taubira wished to recall that “everything is justiciable remedies, it is possible to challenge a decision. At this stage, Mr. Sarkozy has the opportunity to enter the investigating chamber. ” Nicolas Sarkozy has he been humiliated? “It is easy to imagine that a custody unpleasant [but] if the judges have reason to believe that custody is necessary, they do whatever the defendant, and the rule of law ” . regard to very strong criticism by Nicolas Sarkozy, Minister of Justice believes that “it carries a subjective assessment. If the law has not been complied with, there are remedies (…).

[July 13]

Under arrest

Under arrest

Le Monde newspaper published extracts from telephone calls in which Former French President Nicolas Sarkozy reportedly tells Mr Herzog – who has also been charged with corruption – he will help out Judge Azibert in return for the information.
The conversations apparently took place in February on a mobile phone Mr Sarkozy bought using a false name because he knew his calls were being tapped.
Judge Azibert has already been charged with illegally passing on information in relation to an enquiry into money being received by billionaire L’Oreal heiress, Liliane Bettencourt.
In another part of the phone tapes, Mr Sarkozy is also heard saying he will meet with Michel Roger, Monaco’s chief of government.
Mr Sarkozy later discovered that his phone was being bugged, and so did not end up sorting out the job for the judge, it
http://www.lemonde.fr/politique/article/2014/07/12/pourquoi-nicolas-sarkozy-est-mis-en-examen-pour-corruption_4455913_823448.html
[July 1]

Happy 58th Birthday, Nick

Happy 58th Birthday, Nick, January 28 2013

Former French President Nicolas Sarkozy has been held in police custody for questioning over suspected influence-peddling,Sarkozy had a secret phone registered under an assumed name and it was conversations with his lawyer Herzog, recorded on that device, which triggered the probe, and that he was tipped off that his mobile phone had been tapped by judges looking into the alleged financing of his 2007 election campaign by former Libyan dictator Muammar Gaddafi. Sarkozy got a friendly judge to try to influence the outcome of confidential legal deliberations related to the Bettencourt case in return for support securing a lucrative post in Monaco.
They also imply he had a mole in a senior position who tipped him off about a planned police raid on his offices. Such interference in the judicial process is regarded as “influence peddling” in French law and carries a maximum prison sentence of 10 years. The ex-president was accused of “abuse of someone in an impaired state” in the case involving L’Oreal cosmetics fortune heiress Liliane Bettencourt, and was cleared last year of taking Bettencourt’s money when she was too frail to know what she was doing.

[March 6]

Lawyers for former President Nicolas Sarkozy and his wife Carla Bruni announced that they would file a complaint for invasion of privacy for privacy after the release of recordings made by former presidential adviser Patrick Buisson . An interim (emergency procedure) will “soon” filed in the High Court of Paris. Referred to the civil justice aims to stop “a manifestly ilicit” emergency and thus prevent further broadcasts excerpts or transcripts from such recordings. Substantive proceedings may nevertheless be the result. Nicolas Sarkozy and his wife cannot accept that the remarks, made in a private capacity , have been recorded and are distributed without their consent , the confidentiality of private conversations constituting also one of the foundations of a democratic society, “wrote Thierry Herzog and Richard Malka lawyers in a statement. By this procedure, the couple “decided to continue by way of interim relief which will soon be before the Tribunal de Grande Instance of Paris, capturing, recording and dissemination of some of their statements, in violation of Articles 226-1 and 226-2 of the Criminal Code, “they said. Both items are designed to achieve the intimacy of private life by recording words or images without the consent of the persons concerned and the preservation of such records and the fact of wearing or leave to inform the public. These facts are punishable with one year’s imprisonment and a fine of € 45,000

facts are punishable with one year’s imprisonment and a fine of € 45,000


Mary-Kate Olsen, 27, and Olivier Sarkozy , the half-brother of former French president Nicolas Sarkozy and French banker, 44 are engaged. “Mary-Kate’s family thinks Olivier is the best thing to happen to her,”
Olsen won’t have a hard time adjusting to motherhood, either. She’s already close to Sarkozy’s two children Julien, 12, and Margo, 10, from his previous marriage to Charlotte Bernard.
On March 3, 2008, he was appointed Co-head and Managing Director of the Carlyle Group’s Global Financial Services Group. Olivier Sarkozy is based in New York City and is a member of the Board of Directors of BankUnited. They share a US$6 million townhouse in New York City.

The couple was joined by Sarkozy's daughter as they headed out to dinner in the West Village

The couple was joined by Sarkozy’s daughter as they headed out to dinner in the West Village

The fast set

123 East 10th Street – East Village, New York Olivier Sarkozy, the half-brother of former French president-slash-casanova Nicolas, is already selling off his 19th-century East Village rowhouse at 123 East 10th Street, which he bought last August for $6.25 million. Dubbed a “love nest” for him and much-younger girlfriend Mary-Kate Olsen, the Frenchman picked up this 1854 five-bedroom, four-bathroom house at 123 East 10th Street?designed by James Renwick of Grace Church and St. Patrick’s Cathedral fame?because it was old. (Insert joke about their 17-year age difference here.) Signs, a.k.a. the tabloids, report that, even after a year of dating, the couple is still canoodling all over the city, so perhaps he’s trading it in for a more modern residence. The handsome red-brick home with multiple parlors, eight fireplaces, original parquet floors, detailed moldings, and a garden is listed for $6,995,000.

123 East 10th Street – East Village, New York Erected in 1854 by James Renwick, one of the most famous American Architects of his time, amongst Grace Church, St. Patricks Cathedral and other internationally acclaimed projects, 123 East 10th stands out as one of the most exquisite Row Houses built. This house remains to be as attractive and architecturally significant today as it was almost two centuries ago. The home boasts at least five bedrooms and currently only four bathrooms but can easily accommodate more of each. An old world layout with a double parlor greets one with a lovely grand entrance and can accommodate multiple sitting rooms.

to Paris

USD $81,000

Exit Hotel Bristol, M-K & Ashley

Elizabeth Olsen on Tuesday (March 4) in Paris, France.

[September 9 2011]

Dominique Strauss-Kahn

Dominique Strauss-Kahn

(Comité de soutien de Dominique Strauss Kahn communiqué) Dominique Strauss-Kahn will not be the primary candidate of the Socialist Party for President of the Republic of 2012! DSK Club regrets to announce that DSK has taken an irrevocable decision in view of the impediment that has retained a New York court because of a hasty and prejudice that have played against him …! Being a man of responsibility and duty, he agreed to step back from his position as DG of the IMF to protect the institution he has reformed and put his candidacy aside to allow the socialists to debate calmly and prepare an alternative to the presidency of Nicolas Sarkozy! see DSK Club site

nicolas-sarkozy-est-de-retour-a-paris-mais

Court of Cassation – which rules on questions of law – ruled that a trial was justified for Sarkozy as well as his lawyer Thierry Herzog and a former judge, Gilbert Azibert. Sarkozy now faces trial on charges of corruption and influence peddling.

 

[May 17 2019  is facing criminal charges of illicit financing   ]

Former president Nicolas Sarkozy is facing charges of illicit financing for his failed 2012 re-election bid. On May 17 2019, the Constitutional Council ruled that a criminal trial was justified on the grounds that it concerned “the potential breach of probity by candidates or elected officials.” Prosecutors claim Sarkozy spent nearly 43 million euros ($51 million) on his lavish re-election bid — almost double the legal limit of 22.5 million euros — using fake invoices, and demanded he answer the charges in court.

[October 5 2018   trial decision: an appeal hearing has been postponed to the 25th of October   ]

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The Paris court of appeal has postponed to the 25th of October its decision on the appeal of the former president of the Republic Nicolas Sarkozy against his removal before the correctional court in the case of slip-ups in financial his presidential campaign of 2012, the so-called “Bygmalion”.

“The case has been litigated on may 16, but apparently the court needs additional time to decide”, noted the lawyer of the former head of State, Thierry Herzog,

[March 29 2018   trial decision: an appeal hearing June 25   ]

Nicolas Sarkozy must go to trial along with one of his lawyers and a former magistrate on charges of active corruption and influence peddling. “He will … calmly wait for the result of the motion for a declaration of invalidity. He does not doubt that once again the truth will triumph,” the statement said. The court scheduled an appeal hearing for June 25.

[March 22 placed under investigation 1 year after Fillon [hmm] ]

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Sarkozy, 63-years-old, who held power from 2007 to 2012, was told by investigators after two days of questioning in police custody on Wednesday, March 21, he was formally suspected of passive corruption, an offense that carries a sentence of up to 10 years in jail. In France, being “placed under investigation” is a step that judicial investigators can take if they have serious grounds for suspecting an offense. It often but not always leads to trial.

2017-03-15

French presidential candidate François Fillon has been placed under formal investigation into allegations he had his wife and children paid hundreds of thousands of euros for parliamentary jobs they may never have performed.

 

[ March 21 “Garde à vue” – custody ]

Former French President Nicolas Sarkozy has been taken into police custody for questioning over allegations that he received campaign funding from the late Libyan leader Col Muammar Gaddafi.   Mr Sarkozy clinched big trade deals for France with Libya’s Gaddafi in 2007 when he was president,  but he then put France at the forefront of NATO-led airstrikes against Gaddhafi’s troops that helped rebel fighters topple his regime in 2011..   “Garde à vue” – custody – means he can be held and questioned by police for up to 48 hours. Then he may appear before a judge and may face charges.

Mary-Kate Olsen, 31, and banker husband Olivier Sarkozy, 48, 6′ 2″. Mary-Kate splits time between her and Sarkozy’s $6.25 million Manhattan townhouse and their Paris residence.

 

 

[January 14 2012 Merkozy: Angela Merkel and Nicolas Sarkozy ]

Having initially been dubbed “Merkozy” by the French press, the moniker has been gaining traction since the autumn. It has become even more prevalent as the pair thrash out proposals to toughen up fiscal discipline ahead of a make-or-break eurozone summit .

 

President Hollande stands low just now in opinion polls. Nicolas Sarkozy’s problem is that he first needs to win a primary in November. He is no longer the champion of the right, but rather the challenger: His former foreign minister, Alain Juppé, 71, leads in the primary race. And a former prime minister, François Fillon, who is also running, is crucifying his ex-boss for comparing himself to de Gaulle. (“Can you imagine de Gaulle under investigation?” he lashed out recently, in a reference to long-running charges against Mr. Sarkozy of illegal campaign financing.)

So why should France need Mr. Sarkozy in 2017 if it did not want him in 2012? Because, as he explains in his new book, this is not the same country. The situation created by the recent wave of terrorist attacks requires a strong, experienced man at the helm, this argument goes. “I felt I had the strength to lead this battle at such a tormented moment in our history,” he wrote. Some saw in the title “All for France” a reference to a book written by Jacques Chirac for his 1995 campaign, “La France pour tous” (“France for All”). By reversing the proposition, Mr. Sarkozy hopes that his new patriotic spirit will prevail

 

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If this book has any meaning, perhaps its utility is that the time has come for clarity. I wanted to make the effort to go and get, in my heart, my truth on my mistakes as on my successes. I mean to say, without artifice, what I really believe in for the future. The only verdict that really important to me is yours, the readers.    In any political horizon that I may seek I mean less to seduce than to encourage understanding of the complexity of situations and the sequence of events.

 

 

 

[June 27 2015    Sarkozy: IMSI, Bettencourt, Bygmalion, “Kazakh-gate” ]

Keeping track of all those cases can be difficult. So here is a rundown of four of the most current and high-profile investigations involving Nicolas Sarkozy, with ratings on a scale of 1 to 10 of the potential to damage him.

1. The IMSI-catcher — 8/10

The case: In 2013, investigating judge Serge Tournaire was looking into allegations that members of Sarkozy’s entourage solicited funds from Libyan dictator Muammar Gaddafi to finance their boss’s 2007 presidential campaign. As part of that probe he ordered police to tap the mobile phones of Sarkozy and his lawyer, Thierry Herzog.

Suspicious of surveillance, the two men took to communicating instead over throwaway phones that had been purchased under a false name, Herzog told Le Monde in an interview last year.

The police caught on to this scheme, too. Using a scanning device known as an IMSI-catcher, they picked up the signal emanating from Sarkozy’s residence in western Paris and put new taps on both phones, which delivered the most problematic evidence yet revealed in public about the former president.

In excerpts of recorded conversations between Sarkozy and Herzog, which were originally published in the Mediapart newspaper, the two men allegedly discuss the planned seizure of evidence in yet another investigation, involving heiress Liliane Bettencourt.

They refer to a “friend” who is informed and can intercede to stop the evidence being seized. According to Mediapart and Le Monde, Herzog mentions that the man wants a posting in the principality of Monaco and Sarkozy says that he can help.

Judge Tournaire, arguing that the offer to help amounted to an attempt to grant a favor in exchange for information about a secret investigation, placed Sarkozy under formal investigation for violating the secrecy of legal proceedings, corruption and influence-peddling.

In French criminal law, a formal investigation means there is “serious or consistent” evidence of implication in a crime. It brings a suspect one step closer to trial. However, some are dropped without going to court.

What Sarkozy says: He has denied all wrongdoing. In a TV interview last July, Sarkozy pointed out that the friend discussed in the taped conversation, a magistrate named Gilbert Azibert, never got his job in Monaco. He refers to a another taped conversation that was never leaked to the press in which he allegedly withdrew his offer of help to Azibert.

Sarkozy also rejected the notion that he had used an intermediary to influence the Bettencourt investigation. He said that Azibert had exerted no influence because the court authorized the seizure of evidence — an appointment diary — against his wishes. “Where is there influence-peddling?” Sarkozy asked.

Still, Sarkozy’s lawyers appealed to have the tapes suppressed as evidence — an appeal that a court rejected after eight months of deliberation. Sarkozy’s legal team has lodged another appeal motion with the high Court of Cassation, but the investigation is ongoing while the motion considered.
If it is rejected, Sarkozy could be indicted on charges related to the accusations in the formal investigation. A state-appointed prosecutor would then try the case.

2. The Bettencourt affair — 1/10

The case: In 2010, L’Oréal heiress Liliane Bettencourt’s accountant, Claire Thibout, told Mediapart that conservative politicians including Sarkozy collected envelopes stuffed with cash at the billionaire’s house. She alleged that Eric Woerth, treasurer of Sarkozy’s 2007 election campaign, had been given an envelope containing €150,000 in cash shortly before the vote.

If proven, this would have amounted to a violation of French campaign finance law, which limits contributions to €7,500 for political parties and €4,500 for individuals.

In 2013, two judges in Bordeaux placed Sarkozy under formal investigation for trying to take advantage of a vulnerable person to take money from her. They had by that time stopped trying to prove he used the money to finance his campaign. A few months later Sarkozy’s name was removed altogether from the list of suspects.

Woerth, however, was charged with influence-peddling and illegal political financing. The judges also charged several people in Bettencourt’s entourage, including her “confidante,” François-Marie Banier, and her accountant, Patrice de Maistre, with fraud, taking advantage of a vulnerable person and money laundering.

In May 2015, a Bordeaux court handed down jail sentences for Banier and De Maistre but acquitted Woerth. The president of the court said that while there was a “strong suspicion” that Woerth had taken advantage of Bettencourt’s weakness to take money from her, evidence was lacking to prove it.
What Sarkozy says: Sarkozy maintained his innocence throughout the investigation. In a Facebook post after he was removed from the list of suspects, he denounced people who had questioned his probity during his 2007 presidential campaign.

Woerth, who sweated out years of investigation, is now a senior official in Sarkozy’s party, Les Républicains.

While the case is officially over, it lives on as part of the IMSI-catcher investigation.

According to French media, investigating judges argued that in their secret conversations, Sarkozy and his lawyer were trying to curry favor with a magistrate so he would stop officials from seizing Sarkozy’s appointment diary as evidence in the Bettencourt investigation (the diary was ultimately seized).

While Sarkozy cannot be re-investigated for the Bettencourt allegations, any trial on the newer accusations of influence-peddling would delve into the circumstances of conversations between Sarkozy and his lawyer. That, in turn, could dig up the freshly buried Bettencourt investigation, which took place under his presidency.

3. The Bygmalion affair — 4/10

The case: Judges have placed ten people under formal investigation for their alleged participation in a scheme to cover up campaign spending violations in Sarkozy’s 2012 campaign.

In France, the government sets a ceiling for how much money a campaign can spend in each of two rounds in the presidential election — €22.5 million for the second round in 2012.

Judges argue that Bygmalion, an events company that organized Sarkozy’s campaign rallies, used false invoices to underreport its spending. Then, using another set of invoices, it charged a much higher amount to the center-right UMP party for the same services. Witnesses cited in the French press claimed spending exceeded the legal limit by more than €15 million.

Former UMP chief Jean-François Copé stepped down from his post in the wake of the “Bygmalion” scandal.

What Sarkozy says: In a 2014 meeting with party members, Sarkozy told one who asked him about the Bygmalion affair: “There is a scheme, for sure. But the courts are taking care of it. Let me tell you one thing: The person most determined to make people who have done bad things pay is me!”
Sarkozy is not cited as a suspect in the formal investigation, although judges are trying to determine whether he knew of or encouraged the double-invoicing scheme.

So far, the investigation is ongoing. Here again, if the case is rumbling in the midst of the presidential campaign, Sarkozy could face embarrassing questions about the practices of his own party.

4. “Kazakh-gate” — 3/10

The case: Launched in 2012 by two Parisian judges, the investigation delves into the circumstances surrounding France’s 2010 sale of 45 Eurocopter helicopters to Kazakhstan in a deal worth about €2 billion, according to legal documents cited by Davet and Fabrice Lhomme in Le Monde.

The judges suspect that during a 2009 state visit to Kazakhstan, then-President Sarkozy was asked by President Nursultan Nazarbayev to help out three of his friends who were in legal trouble in Belgium, in exchange for the helicopter contract.

In March Jean-François Etienne des Rosaies, a former envoy under Sarkozy, was placed under formal investigation on suspicion that he received payment for pressuring a Belgian senator to adopt an amendment favorable to Nazarbayev’s three aides. Other close collaborators of Sarkozy are also named in the probe.

Sarkozy is not cited directly in the case. But a public trial of intermediaries allegedly paid by the Élysée to intervene on its behalf could prompt an unpleasant exploration of business practices under Sarkozy’s presidency.

What Sarkozy says: He has denied all wrongdoing.

[ June 22 Dominique Strauss-Kahn: live another day]

Former French President Nicolas Sarkozy will not testify in the conflict-of-interest trial of Groupe BPCE Executive Chairman Francois Perol. Sarkozy invoked his constitutional immunity as former head of state in refusing to appear as a witness. France’s central bank chief, Christian Noyer, is scheduled to testify Thursday, the court heard as the trial began Monday.
Perol, 51, who took over in 2009 at BPCE, is accused of violating a law prohibiting government officials from taking private-sector jobs in areas they oversaw. If convicted, he faces up to two years in prison and a fine of 30,000 euros.
Perol was Sarkozy’s top economic adviser and deputy chief of staff from 2007 to early 2009, when the government propped up banks including customer-owned lenders Banque Populaire and Caisse d’Epargne. The government encouraged the combination of these two lenders to create BPCE and stem losses at Natixis SA, their common investment-banking division.

[August 29 2011 Dominique Strauss-Kahn more popular than Carla-Bruni Sarkozy?]

Dominique Strauss-Kahn more popular than  Carla-Bruni Sarkozy?

Dominique Strauss-Kahn more popular than Carla-Bruni Sarkozy?

Although those left in the running are not scandal-tainted like Dominique Strauss-Kahn, they lack his charisma and broad appeal. Most come across as unreconstructed Left-wingers who have failed to capitalise on Mr Sarkozy’s current unpopularity. Mr Sarkozy is seeing his own approval ratings slowly climb. He plans to strike a “father of the nation” pose after the timely birth of his child with third wife Carla-Bruni Sarkozy by the end of the year.